How to configure for headless mode (no RC receiver)

Sorry if this is answered somewhere, but I’ve searched for a few weeks now, and I can’t find any documentation on this.
I have 3 quadcopters and only one RC radio. All three have telemetry. I’ve configured the ECS and accelerometers of all three and the RC radio on the one. I can fly the one with the radio, including loading waypoints and putting it into Auto mode and have it fly the uploaded flight plan. The flight controller is a MiniPix.
So far so good…

I run into trouble when trying to get the other two headless units to arm and/or take off.
They are stuck in “Throttle below safety shutoff”. Since they don’t have an RC radio connected, they don’t have a throttle input per se.

Is there a guide for setting up a headless configuration? I don’t want to have to move the RC radio to each unit for configuration, imagine if I were trying to set up a swarm (that’s my long term goal).

what about reading the docs :slight_smile:

That looks to address all my questions. Thanks! I guess when you know the correct term to search for, it pops right up. Ground Control Station (GSC) only vs headless.

“Headless Mode” is a term used by Toy quadcopter manufacturers to describe what we call Simple Mode in Arducopter.